Flora Iberica aims at facilitating natives or naturalized vascular plant identifications for Iberian Peninsula and Balearic islands. Thus, most of the information supplied refers to characteristics that differentiate plants from each other. The description structure is designed for an easy comparison. The work was conceived with diagnostic purposes rather than extensively descriptive. The fact, that some genera have a very complex taxonomy has made necessary the long descriptions which has meant, somehow, the lost of homogeneity.

As regards to the angiosperms, for the higher taxonomic ranks, including families, we almost always follow the STEBBINS judgment, Flowering plants - Evolution above the species level (1974). We part from the system in question in some cases. In the first place, when included Fumariaceae into Papaveraceae - as subfamily of Fumrioideae – and also in the key, considering Asclepiadaceae, Lilaeaceae, Posidoniaceae and Amaryllidaceae independent of each other. Also, we part from the system to accept as various Viscaeae and Loranthaceae families in Vol. VIII.

Excluding exceptions, the descriptive terminology fits FONT QUER's definitions (Diccionario de Botánica, 1953). We try to avoid any terms that may be uncomfortable for the Portuguese users.

The genera descriptions are mainly refer to plants of Iberian and Balearic territory. Likewise, the keys (both genera and species keys) are also based on direct observation of Iberian and Balearic plants.

As regards to the names of genera, in the known authorship, is indicated “nom. cons.” (The name which should be conserved). We also have decided to indicate, in brackets, the etymology of such names and other information about the grammar. For the epithets, the information is in appendix IV of this web site.

Information that we provide

About each species or subspecies, we provide the following information: 

1.º Correct name (according to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature), authors involved, and the bibliographic reference that provides legal validity. In the appendices I, II and III of this web site appears respectively: abbreviation of author’s names, periodic publications and autonomous works (again according to international rules). Next, at the right margin, appears the pronunciation of the epithets and, moreover, beginning with a capital letter if these are apposition nouns. In the scientific name index appears, in bold type, the considered correct scientific names from the volumes of Flora Iberica.

2.º Synonyms. In the body of the work shall not be correct names that have appeared at the Basic Floras in the specific and sub specific rank, and more someone else who deserves it for another reason, according to editors. When there is a basionym, this appears in the first position with full bibliographic citation. We have made great efforts so that our index collects all useful synonyms, even in the range of varieties. In the index of scientific names are given, in bold type, synonyms appeared in the volumes of Flora Iberica.

3.º Loco typical Indication. Literally transcribed from the part of the protologue referred to the geographical data and, if necessary, added an explanatory word or small sentence.

4.º Iconography. This item can contain two types of references: those that refer to icons of certain quality published works, if possible accessible; and those that refer to our original pictures - at least, one for genus- as well as another an explanatory figure. Iberian and Balearic endemism have priority that haven’t been drawn successfully and published in an accessible work. Index of iconographies is related taxa which gives an original drawing in the volumes of Flora Iberica.

5.º Description. Seeks to be concise and functional, even though homogeneity is lost. We try to show every important diagnostic character.

6.º Chromosome numbers. They are indicated if its known and referring preferment to Iberian counts. We only go to recounts conducted in extra-Iberian plants in the case that there are no known Iberian counts as well as that differ from the extra-Iberian plants.

7.º Habitat. We refer to it so that the flora is easily understood by non expert users. Specifically and deliberately, we have renounced the use of phytosociological terminology, not only because of internal problems (lack of uniformity and stability), but also for the undeniable fact that so many taxonomists are unaware of it.

8.º Flowering period. Our data related to bloom should not be understood strictly and absolutely, because it depends heavily on multiple factors, in very large and heterogeneous territory. We point out as limits first and last months indicated in labels of the available specimens.

9.º Geographical distribution. It shows, schematically, the total distribution of each taxon, and then specifies the peninsular and/or balearic distribution in short sentence, details, finally, the provinces, both Spanish and Portuguese, and islands where their presence is evident from the Basic Herbal material or, in genera without serious taxonomic problems, the firm testimony of the consultants and, occasionally only by the testimony of a specialist in genera or conflict groups, or by reliable citation although unsupported by any specimen. The brackets show that this is a purely allochthonous taxon in the province. In a question as regards geographical doubts and the sign † indicates local extinction of the plant. The symbol indicates the endemic taxa. Here are the codes used for Spain and Portugal, in alphabetical order:

España (Esp.)
A Alicante Gu Guadalajara Mn Menorca
Ab Albacete H Huelva  Ib Ibiza
Al Almería Hu Huesca Po Pontevedra
Av Ávila J Jaén S Cantabria (Santander)
B Barcelona L Lérida (Lleida) Sa Salamanca
Ba Badajoz Le León Se Sevilla
Bi Vizcaya Lo La Rioja (Logroño) Sg Segovia
Bu Burgos Lu Lugo So Soria
C La Coruña (A Coruña) M Madrid SS Guipúzcoa
Ca Cádiz Ma Málaga T Tarragona
Cc Cáceres Mu Murcia Te Teruel
Co Córdoba Na Navarra To Toledo
CR Ciudad Real O Asturias (Oviedo) V Valencia
Cs Castellón Or Orense (Ourense) Va Valladolid
Cu Cuenca P Palencia Vi Álava
Ge Gerona (Girona) PM Islas Baleares Z Zaragoza
Gr Granada Mll Mallorca Za Zamora


Portugal (Port.)
AAl Alto Alentejo DL Douro Litoral
Ag Algarve E Estremadura
BA Beira Alta Mi Minho
BAl Baixo Alentejo R Ribatejo
BB Beira Baixa TM Trás-os-Montes
BL Beira Litoral    

10.º Vernacular names. Then, if appropriate, list the mainland and island names that are most commonly applied to the plant, meaning not only the vernacular name used by the common people, but any other admitted, one way or another, in the language that concern us. It is clear that we do not aspire to be exhaustive at this point and we've barely done any research of its own: our information is essentially acknowledged. And since a single name may have many local variations; so will attend, within each group, the more widespread. As is logical, it is noted if the names in question belong to the Castilian language, Catalan, Euskera, Galician and Portuguese, the continent or not, without much distinction. It would be that our flora, and not only in this domain, give rise to more perfect synthesis or compilation, in its promising full investigatory scope.

11.º Observations. Often in short paragraph autonomous, always adding and concise information on other properties. Occasionally precede or follow some comments, mostly about taxonomic nature: in them we have referred more than once alleged varieties, range which treatment is mixed here, what was necessary to point out.

12.º Species must be found. We indicated in this item species with probable presence in our territory, although not confirmed.

13.º Hybrids, whose existence in the territory of the Flora is firm, just listed after each genus.

The critical work, and the “novitate” to be imposed, in the opinion of the authors, is being published in most of the work ahead. In general, part of our Notulae taxonomicae, chorologicae, nomenclaturales, bibliographicae aut philologicae in opus "Flora iberica" intendentes, hosted by the Annals of the Botanical Garden of Madrid, whose relationship is part of the Appendix V of this web site. The late-breaking news, we try to minimize, are published as appéndix VI.


Presentation of Volume XVI (Compositae) (partim)
at the University of Córdoba

March 15, 2015

third delivery of families and genera belonging to Volume IX

April 21, 2014

Published and available.

February 1, 2014

Published and available.

April 2, 2012

Published and available

July 27, 2010

Published and available

July 1, 2010

of the National Research prize 2009 to Santiago Castroviejo

February 2, 2010


February 23, 2008






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